Centre of pressure, proof of bernoullis theorem, flow through venturimeter, flow through orifice, flow through mouthpiece, flow over vnotch, flow over sharp crested. Daniel measurement and control white paperstheoretical uncertainty of orifice flow measurement page 1 introduction orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. The orifice flow meter, flow nozzle meter, and venturi meter are three commonly used types of differential pressure meter for pipe flow measurement. Flow through venturi meter background and theory introduction flow meters are used in the industry to measure the volumetric flow rate of fluids.
Each of these meters operates on the similar principle. As general requirements, the flow rate measurement system should be able to operate with maximum inlet pressure of 100 psig at room temperature. It is capable of very accurate measurement provided it is properly applied, designed, installed, maintained and interpreted. Discharge characteristics of triangularnotch thinplate weirs. Daniel measurement and control white paperapplication of the orifice meter for accurate gas flow measurement page 1 summary the most common device used in gas flow measurement is the orifice flow meter.
A simple sharpedged orifice demonstration for the fluid. A venturi is a convergingdiverging nozzle of circular crosssection. To determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter 1. All valves were closed except those that will let the water flows from the tank to section orifice plate and return back to the tank.
Remove the orifice diameter, take care not to lose the o. The direction of flow through the orifice can be horizontal, vertical, or inclined. An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. Orifice discharge into free air an orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. The area of a fluid jet out of an orifice is related to the actual area of the orifice by a value known as the coefficient of. The measured pressure drop across the orifice is related to the flow rate by means of an orifice coefficient, which accounts for friction, as defined in the next section of this report. Divide this head to approximately 7 steps of readings.
Fm 308 flow measurement by venturi and orifice meter. Position the reservoir across the channel on the top of the hydraulic bench and level the reservoir by the adjustable feet using a spirit level on the base. It allows students to experiment with flow, coefficients and contraction of a vertical jet of water passing through a sharpedged circular orifice. Energy losses through venturi, orifice, and rotameter. Manometers measure the total head on the orifice and under the jet.
Fluids lab report 6 experiment no 6 orifice and free jet. Like the venturi meter, the pressure difference varies directly with the flow rate. Pdf che241 lab report flowmeter measurement apparatus. As the flow area in a pipe decreases, the flow velocity that is accompanied by a. Flow through an orifice university of texas at austin. Orifice meter is another simple device used for the measuring the discharge through pipes, orifice meter also works on the same principle as that of venturi meter i. An orifice is an opening, of any size or shape, in a pipe or at the bottom or side wall of a container water tank, reservoir, etc. Civil engineering level 1 fluid mechanics lab report. The concentric orifice plate flow meter reduces the pressure by forcing the fluid through a thin plated circular opening smaller than the pipe diameter. The tecquipment flow through an orifice h4 fits onto either of tecquipments hydraulic benches. An orifice meter consists of a flat plate that has a sharpedged hole accurately machined in it and placed concentrically in a pipe as shown in figure 12. The principle of venturimeter is that when a fluid flows through the venturimeter, it accelerates in the convergent section and decelerates in the divergent section, resulting in a drop in. Laminar and turbulent pipe flow lab report objectives following are two objectives of this experiment 1.
Differential pressure type flow meters head flow metersmeasure flow rate by introducing a constriction in the flow. The discharge will depend up on the head of the fluid h above the level of the orifice. Ae 341 fluid mechanics laboratory name of experiment. Orifices may have any shape, although they are usually round, square, or rectangular. The orifice meter, the nozzle meter, and the venturi meter are the most common devices used to measure the instantaneous flowrate. Fm 308 flow measurement by venturi and orifice meter objectives. Use the rule of thumb to estimate the pressure drop across the elbow. Jet trajectory and orifice flow typical work assignments head and flow this experiment asks the students to test a nozzle at a range of. Determining the coefficient of discharge for a draining. Discharge through a sharpedged orifice may be calculated from.
Inlet and throat diameters of the orifice plate were recorded. Allow water to flow through the orifice and note the maximum head over the orifice that permits the water jet to flow into the measuring tank. As liquid flows through the pipe, the flow suddenly contracts as it approaches the orifice and then suddenly expands after the orifice back to the full pipe diameter. Calibration of an orifice plate flowmeter mechanical engineering department king saud university riyadh submitted by.
This lab manual mainly deals with the common and universal laboratory tests of fluid water. Energy losses through venturi, orifice, and rotameter flowmeters. To compare the theoretical and experimental friction head losses in pipe flow. Air mass flow rate measurement northeastern university. If the geometric properties of the orifice and the inherent properties of the fluid are known, the orifice can be used. Fluid flow introduction fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. Q discharge, ft 3 s m 3 s c coefficient of discharge. Extract of sample civil engineering level 1 fluid mechanics lab report oriphis and free jet flow introduction orifice is a term used for a small hole or opening in a. This chart should also produce an average value for the discharge coeffi cient cd. Iftheflowofairis not perfectly steady,thecapacity between the orifice and theflow nozzle on theend of the line introducesatime lag, sothat, though the. To find the coefficient of discharge for venturi meter.
The flow of a fluid jet out of a sharpedged orifice rarely has the same area as the orifice due to a fluid flow phenomenon known as the vena contracta. Pipe flow measurement with a differential pressure flow. Discharge coefficient performance of venturi, standard. This orifice plate creates a measurable pressure difference between its upstream and downstream sides. Flow through an orifacemadril ae 341 fluid mechanics. To find the coefficient of discharge for orifice meter. Differential pressure type flow meters head flow metersmeasure flow rate by introducing a constriction in. The vcone flow meter has a cone shaped obstruction in. Discharge coefficients of squareedged orifices for.
As shown in the figure, the jet narrows over a short distance beyond the orifice that is comparable with the jet diameter to form what. The flow rate measurement system should also be able to provide a maximum air mass flow rate. In this experiment, you will investigate fluid flow in a pipe network and will explore several methods rotameter, orifice and venturi meters for measurement of the. All three use a constriction in the flow path like an orifice plate to cause a pressure drop across the meter that can be measured and correlated with flow rate. An orifice is an opening in the side or base of tank or reservoir through which fluid is discharge in the form of a jet. Although students are motivated differently, have different preferences for how they learn and. To compare the reynolds number and darcy friction coefficient 2. Pdf flow through an orifice rajkumarsingh mondatta.
Orifice flow calculation data sheet calculating an orifice diameter it is difficult to accurately calculate the flow of a gas or liquid through a tiny orifice due to the effect of the leading edge of the orifice. Che241 lab report flowmeter measurement apparatus fm101 2015. This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the discharge characteristics of triangularnotch, thinplated weirs. Fluid mechanics lab report ced, uetp muhammad bilal. The jet that leaves the orifice discharges into the hydraulic bench measuring tank. This is best done by setting up a steadystate condition in which you are filling and emptying the tank at the same rate, so that the flow meter on the tank inlet is telling you what is. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. To change the level in the tank and so the head on the orifice, students adjust the flow to the diffuser. Venturi meter and orifice meter are the commonly used flow meters for measuring massvolumetric flow rate or velocity of the flowing fluid.
View lab report flow through an orifacemadril from ae 341 at san diego state university. In the case of a sharpedged orifice, the effective diameter is 0. See details of the equation that applies to all three and gives flow rate as a. Venturimeter is the most widely used device to measure the discharge through the pipe. Regulate the inlet valve to obtain a constant head h w over the orifice.277 1007 727 1362 501 43 1502 608 1539 1209 488 1466 1000 696 906 188 6 682 755 275 597 43 1599 701 1382 187 767 348 1210 467 1073 1360 357 659 247 1440 1147 1452